Dezignare Interior Design Collective


The second segment in a three-part series

offers brief descriptions and identifying design elements of architecture, interiors and furniture styles
through history influenced by politics, reigning monarchs and governments,
economic conditions, material availability and creative artisans and craftsman.

A - H   [I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q]   R - Z


Italianate c. 1840-1890

Italian villas inspired this late 19th century architectural building style featuring 2 and 3 story stucco facades, low-pitched roofs and wide eaves supported by corbels or brackets and pressed metal cornices. Architect Andrew Jackson Browning's, "The Architecture of Country Houses," propelled the style into vogue. Architectural details include eyebrow arched pediments over tall, beautifully proportioned windows symmetrically placed and accented with iron railings, stone balusters, arched arcades, balconies, cupolas and statuary. (AMERICAN STYLE) (AMERICAN BRACKETED) (TUSCAN)

Italian Renaissance c. 1420 - 1600

Great scientific theories introduced at the end of the Middle Ages brought about one of the grandest periods of human development, fueling growth in city-states and fostering artistic expression throughout Europe. The Italian Renaissance Movement, or "re-birth", placed more emphasis on secular arts, at which time the works of Michael Angelo and Raphael, among others, grew in importance. Florence, Venice, Milan, Rome, Sienna and Tuscany were thriving. Palaces and country manors were often built with symmetrical floor plans facing formal landscaped gardens, with comfort in mind. Architectural details include stucco colonnades, columns, pilasters, broken pediments, arched openings, clay roof tiles, stone barrel vaulted ceilings and stone flooring. Furnishings in oak and walnut with strap-work feature carved scrolls, diamonds, stars and cartouche. Surfaces are adorned with hand painted frescos and mosaics. (EARLY RENAISSANCE c. 1515 - 1547) (MIDDLE RENAISSANCE c. 1550 - 1610) (RENAISSANCE REVIVAL c. 1860 - 1870)



JACOBEAN c. 1600 - 1650 

Bridging Elizabethan and High Renaissance style in England, through the reign of King James I and Charles I, the Renaissance was interpreted by the English in Tudor style. Stone walls with leaded glass windows offering filtered light into dark spaces, heavy raised oak paneling with spiral turned carvings and hand-forged ironwork fittings, hand-wrought metal candelabra and candle wall sconces, pewter flatware, crewel embroidery and furnishings in dark stains contrasted light stucco wall finishes. (ELIZABETHAN) (PILGRIM FURNITURE) (TUDOR)


One of the most fascinating styles to Westerners in the 16th century provided a stark contrast to the Victorian designs of the time, speaking to another simpler way of life. Straw Tatami mats were integral elements and used as units of measure. Influenced by nature, graceful structures are expertly crafted with sliding Shoji screens, paper lanterns, floor pillows, folding screens, lacquered finishes and intricate inlays. Gardens become an extension of the home melding interior and exterior. (ASIAN) (CHINESE) (VIETNAMESE) (THAI)





LODGE-LOOK 1920 - 1940

Up-state New York's Adirondack mountains became a destination for the elite to retreat. Large-scaled rough-hewn log bungalows nestled in the woods near water created a woodsy summer or winter retreat with nature back in focus. Timber and stone walls and fireplaces, wood planked flooring and large beamed and vaulted ceilings reinforce this get-away style. Furnishings are simple. Hand-made textiles such as quilts and woven rugs, stick furniture and "Tramp Art," along with hunting and fishing themes make this a natural family-oriented style.

LOUIS XIV c. 1638 - 1715

The grand air surrounding the reign of Louis XIV in the palace of Versailles, which took over three decades to build featured opulent, flamboyant decorations attesting to his belief in his divine right to rule the Monarchy. As a patron of the arts, his architect, Jules Mansart surrounded the King with grandeur, gardens, fountains and parklands, setting the stage for elaborate interiors. Inlaid marquetry, marble statuary and mosaics, oil paintings and elaborate mirrors, along with bronze sculptures and fine detailing, were a testament to his victory. (BAROQUE)

LOUIS XV c. 1715 - 1773

Also known as Louis Quinze style, Louis XV, the "well-loved" child king, born and raised in a time of self-indulgence, was influenced by his uncle, Regent Philippe de Bourbon. 18th century Rococo, derived from the French word "rocaille," was introduced in Versailles as a movement away from oppressive formality. His court became integrally involved in the development of the arts. This delicate style, most notable its graceful, sinuous C-curves, uniquely achieves balance with uneven opposing curves. Design elements include low-relief carved gesso appliqués, gilded bronze ormolu mounts with carved shell and endive leaf motifs. Furnishings include Trumeau mirrors crowned with oil paintings, 3-tiered folding screens, sedan chairs and curved bombé chests with slanted grain wood inlays, veneers and lacquers. Finishes include gilding and pale painted finishes, heavily varnished. Silk fabrics, paired with finely woven tapestries are accented by exquisite porcelains in the most pampering of boudoirs. (ROCOCO) (REGENCY c.1715 - 1723)

Louis XVI c. 1774 - 1793 

Dubbed Louis Seize style, during the reign of Dauphine and Marie-Antoinette, Louis XVI is heavily influenced by the continuing discoveries related to the excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii, sparking renewed interest in the classical Renaissance period. Known for its fineness in detail and contrast to Rococo, details include floor-to-ceiling fluted pilasters, large wall areas, tall rectangular door surrounds with gilded gesso ornamentation and Pompeian drawings. Woodwork trimmed in white with elaborate gilded and pale painted finishes, inlaid parquet floors and furniture inlaid with oak, beech, ebony, mahogany, and tulip, were fashioned with simple curves and straight tapering lines. Commodes, vitrines, bureaus, and screens, with chaise lounge and Bergeré chairs luxuriously overstuffed in silks and tapestries adds to the richness in detail. Furnishings included bronze and gilded ormolu mounts, delicate fluting inlaid with beads and brass fillets, ormolu caryatides capping wood legs and marble topped galleries. Accessories include Chinese porcelains, Aubusson and Beauvais tapestries, fine silver and porcelain with motifs of trophies, musical instruments, bound-arrow, wreath, ribbon, garland and swags. This period came to an abrupt end with their death in the Revolution and the new developing democratic philosophies. (NEO-CLASSICAL) (SHERATON)




A simple lifestyle is reflected in the 15th century Spanish, Italian and Greek communities built on the Mediterranean Sea. Thick, weathered white-washed stucco walls, terra cotta tiles, louvered shutters, burnished iron hardware and grilles, colorful ceramics and mosaic inlays, ornate turnings, carvings and arched details, along with the bright colors of seaside climate including lavender, sky blue, yellow and orange are used for simple, practical purposes. This style, while simple in nature, can become quite elaborate and ornate.

Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages of the 4th and 5th century begins simply with primitive furnishings, chests and crudely constructed chairs, stools and benches. The Later Middle Ages, 14th and 15th century design details developed into more refined furnishings including trestle tables, folding chairs and tables. Churches and monasteries throughout the ages commissioned elaborate carvings and tracery. (CASTLES)


Organic shapes and clean lines typify this architectural style utilizing current day industrial applications for manufacturing in the "machine age" with its roots in the German Bauhaus School of Architecture and Scandinavian design. Materials include bent plywood, veneers, fiberglass, steel, aluminum, brass along with plastics, vinyl, melamine were used to create sleek, colorful, abstract geometric shapes in furnishings and artistic applications in lighting. All elements were reduced to their purest form and designed for a specific function, rather than for merely ornamental applications. (INTERNATIONAL STYLE) (FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT)

MISSION  c. 1769

Religious missions, designed as fortresses to protect settlers and missionaries, were constructed of stucco walls with small round windows, arcades and courtyards, rough oak sawn timbers and beams, heavy iron-clad wood doors, bell-towers, carved stonework and wrought iron. Interiors, with hand-made saltio tile floors and brightly decorated hand-glazed tile insets, are combined with leather, hand-woven rugs, pottery and carvings of religious icons and Native American motifs. Simple furnishings constructed of solid oak wood with peg and dowel construction feature twisted spiral columns. (ARTS & CRAFTS c. 1890 - 1920) (ART DECO c. 1910 - 1940) (CALIFORNIA MISSION c. 1890 - 1920) (SOUTHWESTERN) (SPANISH PUEBLO) (SPANISH COLONIAL REVIVAL c. 1915-1940) (SHAKER)


Incorporating Romanesque, Persian, Byzantine and Far Eastern elements into mathematically precise geometric designs this style is lively and rich in color. Luxurious silk fabrics, detailed floor mosaics, elaborately carved teak furnishings, along with terra cotta hand-made glazed tiles, decorative brass are reminiscent of the bazaars in Marrakech. Architectural elements include vaulted ceilings, tracery in plaster and stone, intricately carved doorways and friezes. Decorative elements include strong jewel-toned colors, patterned mosaic floors, brass lanterns and ironwork, hand-woven rugs in intricate geometric and paisley designs.



NEO-CLASSICAL c. 1750 - 1800

Andrea Palladio's ruins in Rome and Athens, along with the archaeological discoveries of Herculaneum and Pompeii brought about a Greco-Roman revival sharply contrasting to the prevailing Rococo period. Popularized by English architect Robert Adam, this style has been used as a basis for interpretation for hundreds of years to become one of the most influential of all design styles. Architectural elements include columns, capitals, pilasters, pediments and friezes. Proportions established by Palladio and his three column orders of Corinthian, Ionic and Doric have been studied and interpreted by many, influencing several subsequent design styles. Decorative elements feature refined lines and proportions into stonework, ironwork and marble with shield and urn motifs common, along with carved marble statuary honoring Roman Gods and Goddesses in garden settings. Thomas Jefferson's Monticello is a fine example of this style in America. (ADAMS) (GEORGIAN) (PALLADIAN) (POMPEAIN)

NEO-GOTHIC c. 1835 - 1945

Medieval influences shaped this architectural style based on the engineering of massive buttresses, towering pinnacle church spires, and pointed Gothic arches. Design details include quatrefoil, tracery, elaborate leaded, hand-painted and stained glass, stonework caryatides and gargoyles, which were often used for churches, colleges and commercial buildings. (GOTHIC REVIVAL)




The blending of many European styles creates this style of elegance with pared-down formality, offering a relaxed and comfortable environment, lived in high-style. Finishes include stucco, terra cotta tiles, arched windows, leaded and stained glass, and weathered or honed surfaces. Elaborately carved oak and walnut woods with darker finishes feature carved details. (EUROPEAN) (JACOBEAN) (NEO-CLASSICAL) (PALLADIAN) (POMPEAIN) (VENETIAN)




Italian architect Andrea Palladio, influenced by Roman architect, Vitruvius, studied the remains of classical temples and developed a design style based on the symbolic nature of architectural and its ability to make a philosophical statement. First popularized by Indigo Jones and later by Richard Boyle, Palladio's teachings included manuals establishing specific proportions for the classical orders of Corinthian, Ionic and Doric. From this point, Robert Adam transformed these design elements into a Neo-Classical style. Design details include columns, pilasters, capitals, friezes, pediments, decorative ironwork, statuary and elaborate symmetrical gardens. (ADAMS) (NEO-CLASSICAL)

Pennsylvania Dutch Colonial c. 1720 - 1830

The regional American architectural style of the Pennsylvania Dutch country features the work of German and Dutch settlers including Amish, the Mennonites, and others in the region. Often single room structures featured gambrel roofs resembling barns. Raised wood paneling, stone chimneys, sash windows, dormers and double "Dutch" doorways, along with stenciled details are common design elements of the period. 


English Puritans crossing over to America on the Mayflower built simple structures reflecting 17th C. English country styles, upon their arrival to the New England area in the New World. Basic furnishings were crafted, from local materials, into utilitarian objects with multiple uses. Scraps of fabric became hand-sewn quilts depicting patriotic symbols, such as the American eagle, the family and the home. Architectural details include the dog-run layout, wood walls, stone fireplaces, wood porches with steps, dry-stacked rock walls and staggered wood rail fences.


The architecture of the ancient Greek colonies of Herculanum and of Pompeii discovered in 1749, revealed a new source of design inspiration. Patterned frescos and hand-painted murals painted in exquisite ivory, yellow, red, green and blue and elaborate mosaic floors speaks to an elegant, accomplished lifestyle captured in time. Within their simple furnishings, embroidered textiles, carved stone and bronze balusters, colonnades and covered walkways, Pompeian's showed a reverence for their Gods, Goddesses and gardens.  

PORTUGUESE c, 1415 - 1638

The Atlantic seafaring Portuguese conquerors, later overtaken by the Dutch, created heavy stone fortresses with ramparts, bastions and arched gateways overlooking the sea. Dark wood furnishings with exaggerated proportions and bulbous carved ornamentation displays a strong contrast to light stucco walls. Intricate gold-leaf accents and colorful, glazed tile designs in gold, mustard yellow, burnt orange, various blues, brown, red and rose are combined in mosaic patterns and Arraiolos carpets, based on Islamic interlaced tile patterns.



Queen Anne Furniture c. 1689 - 1753

Named after English monarch Queen Anne, who reigned from 1702-1714, this popular 18th century furniture style, with Dutch, French and Chinese influences, became a refined version of the William and Mary style, with more graceful lines and finer details. Design elements include cabriole legs, fiddle-back chairs, broken scroll pediments, carved shell motifs and curved aprons crafted of walnut, maple, cherry and mahogany woods, veneers and lacquered finishes. Unique furniture designs included lowboys, roll-top desks and wing-back chairs. (PRECEDING CHIPPENDALE) (WILLIAM & MARY)

Queen Anne Victorian Architecture c.1876 - 1890

Also known as High Victorian, large shingled multi-story designs by English architect Richard Norman Shaw, later interpreted by Henry Hobson Richardson in America featured steep roofs, spires, widows-walks, large porches and decorative stained glass, which transform these structures into multi-colored painted wedding cakes of elaborately machined woodwork. Interior details included wood floors, baseboards, wainscoting, crown molding, "Gingerbread" fretwork, turned spindles, iron and wood mantles, brass hardware and gas lighting, large oil painting, palms and hand-made heirlooms. Furnishings are made of oak and walnut and heavily carved with dark stained finishes. Brocade and velvet fabrics lined with sheers and crowned with elaborate cornice details, along with crystal and bronze were opulent additions. 

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