Dezignare Interior Design Collective


The first segment in a three-part series

offers brief descriptions and identifying design elements of architecture, interiors and furniture styles
through history influenced by politics, reigning monarchs and governments,
economic conditions, material availability and creative artisans and craftsman.

[A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H]   I - Q   R - Z


ADAM c.1760 -1790

Architects Robert and James Adams, influenced by Greek and Roman art and architecture, designed mansions, furniture, millwork and woodwork during the Federal period. Their designs were reproduced by Thomas Chippendale with straight lines featuring refined, classical details including medallions, ram's heads, garlands, swags, urns and fluting. (GEORGIAN) (FEDERAL) (HEPPLEWHITE c.1780 - 1800) (SHERATON c.1790 - 1810) (NEO-CLASSICAL c.1810 - 1830)

AMERICAN FEDERAL c.1790 - 1830

Neoclassical styling was interpreted in America after the Revolutionary War. The American Federal style featured elegant lines, intricate inlaid detailing and decoration, curvilinear shapes, tapered legs, oval chair backs, brass fittings, inlays, veneers, eagle motifs and Wedgewood china. (ADAMS) (GEORGIAN) (HEPPLEWHITE c.1780 - 1800) (SHERATON c.1790 - 1810) (NEO-CLASSICAL c.1810 - 1830)

ANTE-BELLUM c.1830 - 1860

Federal style plantation homes built prior to the Civil War feature symmetrically designed floor plans with a center first-floor entryways. Most often they feature large scaled full-length fluted columns supporting the 2nd story roof from ground level with large porches, balconies, evenly space windows and doors, decorative friezes, formal staircases and hipped or gable roofs. (GEORGIAN) (FEDERAL)

ART DECO c.1910's - 1940's

As a glamorous decorative art and architectural movement, Art Deco rejected traditional classical influences in favor of streamlined, geometric forms utilizing modern industrial techniques and materials. Featured at the Universal Exhibition of the Modern Decorative and Industrial Art in Paris, this style marked a controversial time promoting the industrial arts, which spread quickly throughout Europe. (BAUHAUS c.1919 - 1928) (CUBISM) (FUTURISM)

ART NOUVEAU c.1890 - 1914

This French and Belgium avant-garde decorative arts-and-architecture movement rebelled against industrialized mass production of the Victorian Age. A new, sinuous  "Moderne" style was developed to unify humanity and its surroundings. It incorporated intricate detailing, organic forms and was inspired by the female form, mythology and Japanese influences.

ARTS_&_CRAFTS c. 1890 - 1920

The Arts & Crafts decorative arts movement rejected mass-produced, machine-made Victorian furnishings and details. It promoted hand-craftsmanship utilizing mortise and tenon joints and quarter-sawn wood to create strong, rectilinear designs of iron, copper, oak and stone, softened with art glass windows and lighting, hand-made pottery and rugs. (MISSION)


Influenced by Japanese and Chinese decorative art, architecture, interior details and furnishings features minimalist, serene and orderly environments with a fluid balance between humanity and the natural environment, often featuring asymmetrical design elements.



BAUHAUS c.1919 - 1928

A German design school founded by architect Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, emphasized the combined role of the arts, hand-crafted quality, economics and engineering to create functional designs utilized in every aspect of our lives. (BAUHAUS) (BAUHAUS MOVEMENT) (GERRIT RIETVELD)

BAROQUE c.1600 - 1714

Originating in Italy and promoted by the Roman Catholic Church, a primary patron of the arts, this highly decorative style of the 17th Century featured exaggerated ornamentation with the most luxurious of materials.

BIEDERMEIER c.1810 - 1835

This streamlined Post-Napoleonic style exercised a freedom from the mandates of the French court by modest expert craftsman, who created furniture with robust rectilinear lines, elaborately patterned, French-polished fruitwood veneers, black-lacquered accents and neo-classical motifs.

A romantic, exotic style reflecting the British Colonists’ world travels during the early 19th century, incorporates "relaxed" Victorian furnishings. Dark finishes, plantation shutters, wicker, leather, brasses, tropical fauna, animal motifs and contrasting sheer or fabrics are typical design elements.




Influenced by Dynasties throughout Chinese history, this restrained and elegant design style features simple, angular forms, exquisite lacquered finishes, precious stone and ivory inlays and detailed painted decoration. Design elements include unique joinery techniques, pewter, brass and copper hardware embellishments and raised platforms.

CHIPPENDALE c.1750 - 1790

Late 18th-century furniture maker Thomas Chippendale's elegant creations for formal upholstery and mahogany case pieces with graceful lines, cabriole legs, ball-and-claw foot, broken pediments, pineapple motifs and oriental fretwork details. (GEORGIAN STYLE) (CHINESE CHIPPENDALE) (FRENCH CHIPPENDALE) (GOTHIC CHIPPENDALE)

COLONIAL c.1620 - 1780

Modest American colonist style, influenced by English Jacobean, utilized readily available materials such as pine, oak, birch and maple. Also used were simple construction techniques including high-backed chairs, drop-leaf tables and spindle carvings often left unfinished, and needlework, pewter, iron and pressed tin. (COLONIAL AND JACOBEAN c.1620 - 1720) (QUEEN ANNE c.1720 - 1750) (CHIPPENDALE c.1750-1790) (WINDSOR)

Colonial Revival c.1876 - 1955

Derived from Federal and Georgian styles, this late 19th century to early 20th century style begins a departure away from elaborate Victorian detailing. The simple, symmetrical designs of these homes were believed to reflect American ideals and patriotism. Most were constructed of brick or wood sided, 2 or 3 story structures with a gable roof and overhangs. Many feature center halls with public rooms on the 1st story and private quarters on the upper levels. Additional details include dormer windows, columns, porticos, transom fanlights, multi-paned windows, shutters.

CONTEMPORARY c.1950 - Present

Late 20th-Century designs originated in various countries are unified by stark simplicity with long lines and low, horizontal forms, vivid colors and strong contrasts, primarily using man-made materials and sophisticated manufacturing techniques. Plastics and metals, primarily chrome, are used extensively, along with large expanses of glass window-walls. Furnishings are fashioned in rectilinear or simple curvilinear forms. Woven fabrics in geometric patterns and bright solids are incorporated to soften hard edges. Large-scaled accessories of a sculptural nature in a wide variety of materials are used minimally.

CAROLEAN c.1660-1689

The reign of Charles II brought with it extravagance and luxurious detailing on walnut and oak furnishings with veneers, marquetry, lacquers and embossed silver decoration. Design details included elaborately carved turnings, cherubs and caned panels.

COTTAGE c.1860 - Present

A simple look characterized by hand painted furnishings, cotton fabrics with fruit and floral designs, pine and oak furnishings with turned legs and rush or caned seats, weathered finishes, stenciled patterns and colors reflecting the beauty of the countryside wildflowers, berries, grasses and grains.

COUNTRY c.1980 - Present

Unpretentious, regional rustic styles created with primitive furniture and simple materials such as pine or oak, wrought iron, hand-painted distressed finishes, hand-dyed fabrics in solids and floral prints, hand-knotted rugs and needlework, hand-woven baskets and rush seat chairs. (ENGLISH COUNTRY) (FRENCH PROVINCIAL)

Craftsman Bungalows

Considered simple structures, simple craftsman bungalows, break away from elaborate Victorian detailing. Details include low-pitched roof, wide eaves, square columns, stone chimneys, sloped stone foundations, gabled dormers, built-in cabinetry, decorative art glass, oak wood. (MISSION)



Directoire c.1793 - 1804

Honoring the Directorate of France after the French Revolution this style featured straight lines, Greek and Roman design elements, mythical and stylized animal motifs, as well as gilded finishes.

Duncan Phyfe c.1795 - 1848

American cabinetmaker Duncan Phyfe was very influential during the Federal period and offered a high-end American refinement of English Sheraton including neo-classical elements: reeding, lion's foot, eagle wings and lyre. (AMERCIAN FEDERAL c.1790 - 1830) (GEORGIAN c.1714 - 1810) (HEPPLEWHITE c.1765 - 1820) (SHERATON c.1790 - 1810)



EARLY AMERICAN c.1608 - 1720

Early American colonists designed utilitarian, unassuming wood furniture, often crudely constructed, with straight lines and minimal decoration created by hand from local materials. These pieces were most influenced by European styles of the time, such as Jacobean and William and Mary and Queen Anne elements. (JACOBEAN c. 1600 - 1650) (QUEEN ANNE c.1689 - 1753) (WILLIAM & MARY c.1689 - 1700)


Post-Gothic and pre-classical design forms featured arches, high-relief carvings, pilasters, indigenous ornamental elements such as the olive, laurel and acanthus leaves.

EASTLAKE c. 1870 - 1890

Furniture designed by English designer Charles Locke Eastlake, popular in America and England was constructed with fruitwoods, featuring simple Gothic or Oriental design elements, unique hardware, reeding and scored designs.

Refers to any combination of periods, styles, fabrics, furnishings, architectural details and collectables reflecting personal interests, while displaying cherished memorabilia.

ELIZABETHAN I c.1509 - 1603

Gothic, along with French, Italian and Flemish influences are found in furniture popular during the reign of Elizabeth I of England. Crafted in oak with peg construction and massive proportions, pieces featured straight lines and elaborate carved details such as linen fold, the Tudor rose, animals, fruit and floral designs and bulbous ornamentation on balusters. (ELIZABETHAN REVIVAL c.1800) (TUDOR c.1500 - 1600)

ENGLISH c.1500's - 1800's

English furniture styles were directly affected by each Monarch reigning at a specific time, political influences and available materials, as is every design style. Earliest English furniture, from the Elizabethan period, was constructed primarily of oak featuring wainscoting, linen chests, cupboards and four-poster beds. Once French walnut became popular in the middle of the 17th century decorations became more elaborate and were influenced by world travel. By the 18th Century furniture lines were simplified and curvilinear. French walnut became unavailable, forcing cabinetmakers to import mahogany from Spain. Design elements become more elaborate for the wealthy, until Robert Adam's classical designs became fashionable and satinwoods began being imported from the Indies.


Ranging from casual to formal and basic to functional country cottages of villagers and farm workers were fairly unsophisticated. Design elements include handmade textiles, small-patterned fabrics, natural and weathered finishes, hammered brass, wrought iron hardware and tools, combined with pine furniture.



Implying a sophisticated, elegant style with grand proportions featuring architectural embellishments and spa-like amenities. Traditional woodwork, carved statuary, tile and marble floors, faux finishes, dome and barrel vaulted ceilings, luxurious upholstery, wrought iron and old-world distressed finishes set the tone.




FEDERAL c. 1780 - 1830

Following the American Revolution and combining neoclassic furniture styles characteristic of Hepplewhite and Sheraton, this style is characterized by graceful straight lines, tapered legs, delicate turnings, brass fittings, inlays and veneers. (DUNCAN PHYFE) (HEPPLEWHITE c.1780 - 1800) (SHERATON c.1790 - 1810) (NEO-CLASSICAL c.1810 - 1820)

FINNISH c.1900 - 1970

Finland craftsmen design and create innovative contemporary designs with fluid lines showcased in neutral color pallets, utilizing bentwood techniques and tubular steel.  Functional and ergonomic, this style is designed for the masses, rather than aristocracy.

FOLK ART c.1790 - 1840

American folk art represents a variety of decorative, hand-crafted techniques utilizing found materials, hand painted and applied to furnishings textiles, ceramics, glass, metals and prints featuring bright, colorful and elaborate patterns capturing a delightful spirit with innovative designs. (AMERICAN FANCY)

FRENCH EMPIRE c.1780 - 1847

French art, architecture and interiors introduced by Napoleon I court architects, Percier and Fontaine, were constructed primarily of mahogany with brass ormolu embellishments featuring classical elements and symmetrical designs such as the wreath, united with the "Imperial Bee," Greek, Egyptian and military motifs. Accepted internationally this style was heavily influenced by the archaeological discoveries of the time. (ENGLISH REGENCY) (GERMAN BIEDERMEIER) (AMERICAN DUNCAN PHYFE)


Early French country furniture, offered a rustic rendition of more formal French furniture of the 16th and 17th, with softer curvilinear lines and elegant carvings. Design elements include warm wood tones, hand-woven baskets, caning, terra cotta tile flooring and roofing, stucco walls with a Mediterranean color palette of terra-cotta, lavender, deep sea blues, greens and sunny yellow.



GEORGIAN c.1714 -1810

Honoring George I and George II who reigned England from 1714-1760. Georgian furniture influenced by Palladian, Rococo, Neo-Classic and Chinese designs is characterized by elaborately carved cabriole legs, ball-and-claw feet, broken pediments, ornate carvings, piercing and gilding. (EARLY GEORGIAN  c.1714-1730) (MID-GEORGIAN c.1730-1770) (LATE-GEORGIAN c.1770-1810)

GOTHIC c.1200 - 1550

Influenced by Roman and Medieval architectural Gothic style features highly elaborate carved wood linen fold panels and  open tracery, Quadra foil and trefoil patterns, columns, arches, finials, pointed arches were design elements carved in oak with dark stained finishes, which were combined with decorative wrought iron, colorful tapestries, trestle tables and armoires.

GOTHIC REVIVAL c.1830 - 1860

A Christian style inspired by faith and Gothic architectural ornamentation used on structures, furnishings and decorative accessories in the 19th century. Notable details include spires, buttresses, oak furnishings, tapestries and ironwork, tracery with pointed arch door surrounds, windows and raised panel woodwork. (ENGLISH "GOTHICK" REVIVAL c.1745-1845) (AMERICAN GOTHIC REVIVAL c.1830 - 1860)

GREEK c.480 B.C. - 323 B.C.

Greek design extends back to 3000 B.C. Greek design prevalent during the Classical period, in the days of the Parthenon and the Acropolis, have been studied and admired for centuries. The Greeks developed three architectural orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian and adhered to specific proportions in all their architectural designs. Fluted columns, pilasters, triangular pediments, decorative friezes, carved statuary, caryatides, Gods and Goddesses and marble were main design elements. (ANCIENT CIVILIZATION) (CLASSICAL PERIOD)

GREEK REVIVAL c.1799 - 1850

Revived for both private and public buildings, this style is also known as the "national style." With Greek inspired detailing, stemming from archeological discoveries of the time and political motivations of the time, this style became extremely popular as it came to represent democracy. Symmetrical floor plans with porches, large-scaled moldings and heavy cornice details, along with decorative pilasters, sidelights, columns, and pediments are common design elements found with this style.



HEPPLEWHITE c.1765 - 1820

English furniture designer and cabinetmaker George Hepplewhite's elegant neo-classical designs, reproduced in the United States, featured heart-shaped and shield-shaped chair backs, delicate proportions, tapered legs, contrasting veneers and inlaid woods. (ADAMS) (AMERICAN FEDERAL) (GEORGIAN) (SHERATON c.1790 - 1810) (NEO-CLASSICAL c.1810 - 1830)


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